Kathmandu valley possess natural values although they are primarily recognizes for their cultural standards. UNESCO’s mention that: At the grate civilization of Asia, seven groups of Hindu and Buddhist monuments, as well as the three palace squares of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, illustrate Nepalese art at its height.
The bowl shaped valley with the rivers and surrounding forested hills have high biological significances. As early as in the 18th century, Brian Hodgson collected from the valley and it’s surrounding, specimens of 672 bird species of which 124 were previously unknown to science. The valley is home to 550 residential and migratory species of birds.
Of the seven monumental zones, Swayambhu, Pashupatinath and Changu Narayan are located in Natural setting with biodiversity of significance. The other valley floor and suryavinayak, Nagarkot, Telkot, Shivapuri Kakani,Dhulikhel, Nagarjun, Chandragiri, Hatiban, Godavari and Phulchoki in the valley rim.
The Swayambhu area is a type locality for the 27 flowering plants discovered by francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1802-03.the dominating tree species are mainly chir pine and Schinma Wallichi. Swayambhu is often referred to as the monkey Temple by visitor because of the presences of around 300 Rhesus Macaques.
The Pashupatinath area, lying on the banks of Bagmati river, contains natural forests and is home to about 200 Rhesus Macaques. In 2004, thirty- two ungulate species including Barking deer, spotted deer and black bucks were trans-located to the area from the central zoo.
The changu Narayan area is a hillock covered with native tree of 100 year- old Champ tree (Michelia champaca ) from which the local name changu derived. The natural forest on the hillock is composed of Schima wallichii, Engelhardia spicate, Castanets tribulodies, Alnus Nepalese, rhododendron arboretum. The plantation forest is dominated by Pinus roxburghi.